Hit points for level 0 guys: it’s banging around my head that Level 0 mercenaries have 1d6 hit points, and level 0 non-combatants have 1d4 hit points, but I can’t seem to actually find that in the text anywhere. Where is it listed?
Dexterity: I know my players are going to ask why Dexterity bonus doesn’t apply to thief skills, it doesn’t, does it?
I don’t think there’s an official answer in the book for your first question. I usually give all level 0s 4hp, since it would be odd for a level 0 to level up to a theif and lose HP.
As for your second question: the benefit a thief gets from high dex is they level up more quickly, meaning that if two thieves start together and one has a higher dex, they’ll frequently have slightly better checks than the other.
Human military troops of 0 level are assumed to always have maximum (4) hit points.
In D@W: Campaigns we explain that at most 3 peasants per 10 families can be conscripted into a domain's military and militia, which is to say 3 troops per 10 adult men (each family has one adult male, one adult female, and three children). These three men are assumed to be the most able-bodied, in the top 30%, so they have 4 hit points.
Peasants and laborers generally have 3hp, sedentary humans have 2hp, and children and elderly have 1hp.